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41 Facts About The History Of Central Banks In The United States That Our Children Are No Longer Taught In School

From http://poorrichards-blog.blogspot.com

Today, most American students don’t even understand what a central bank is, much less that the battle over central banks is one of the most important themes in U.S. history.  The truth is that our nation was birthed in the midst of a conflict over taxation and the control of our money.  Central banking has played a key role in nearly all of the wars that America has fought.  Presidents that resisted the central bankers were shot, while others shamefully caved in to their demands.  Our current central bank is called the Federal Reserve and it is about as “federal” as Federal Express is.  The truth is that it is a privately-owned financial institution that is designed to ensnare the U.S. government in an endlessly expanding spiral of debt from which there is no escape.  The Federal Reserve caused the Great Depression and the Federal Reserve is at the core of our current economic crisis.  None of these things is taught to students in America’s schools today.

In 2010, young Americans are taught a sanitized version of American history that doesn’t even make any sense.  As with so many things, if you want to know what really happened just follow the money.
The following are 41 facts about the history of central banks in the United States that every American should know….
#1 As a result of the Seven Years War with France, King George III of England was deeply in debt to the central bankers of England.
#2 In an attempt to raise revenue, King George tried to heavily tax the colonies in America.
#3 In 1763, Benjamin Franklin was asked by the Bank of England why the colonies were so prosperous, and this was his response….

“That is simple. In the colonies we issue our own money. It is called Colonial Script. We issue it in proper proportion to the demands of trade and industry to make the products pass easily from the producers to the consumers.
In this manner, creating for ourselves our own paper money, we control its purchasing power, and we have no interest to pay to no one.”

#4 The Currency Act of 1764 ordered the American Colonists to stop printing their own money.  Colonial script (the money the colonists were using at the time) was to be exchanged at a two-to-one ratio for “notes” from the Bank of England.
#5 Later, in his autobiography, Benjamin Franklin explained the impact that this currency change had on the colonies….

“In one year, the conditions were so reversed that the era of prosperity ended, and a depression set in, to such an extent that the streets of the Colonies were filled with unemployed.”

#6 In fact, Benjamin Franklin stated unequivocally in his autobiography that the power to issue currency was the primary reason for the Revolutionary War….

“The colonies would gladly have borne the little tax on tea and other matters had it not been that England took away from the colonies their money, which created unemployment and dissatisfaction. The inability of the colonists to get power to issue their own money permanently out of the hands of George III and the international bankers was the prime reason for the Revolutionary War.”

#7 Gouverneur Morris, one of the authors of the U.S. Constitution, solemnly warned us in 1787 that we must not allow the bankers to enslave us….

“The rich will strive to establish their dominion and enslave the rest. They always did. They always will… They will have the same effect here as elsewhere, if we do not, by (the power of) government, keep them in their proper spheres.”

#8 Unfortunately, those warning us about the dangers of a central bank did not prevail.  After an aborted attempt to establish a central bank in the 1780s, the First Bank of the United States was established in 1791.  Alexander Hamilton (who had close ties to the Rothschild banking family) cut a deal under which he would support the move of the nation’s capital to Washington D.C. in exchange for southern support for the establishment of a central bank.

#9 George Washington signed the bill creating the First Bank of the United States on April 25, 1791.  It was given a 20 year charter.
#10 In the first five years of the First Bank of the United States, the U.S. government borrowed 8.2 million dollars and prices rose by 72 percent.
#11 The opponents of central banking were not pleased.  In 1798, Thomas Jefferson said the following….

“I wish it were possible to obtain a single amendment to our Constitution – taking from the federal government their power of borrowing.”

#12 In 1811, the charter of the First Bank of the United States was not renewed.
#13 One year later, the War of 1812 erupted.  The British and the Americans were at war once again.
#14 In 1814, the British captured and burned Washington D.C., but the Americans subsequently experienced key victories at New York and at New Orleans.
#15 The Treaty of Ghent, officially ending the war, was ratified by the U.S. Senate on February 16th, 1815 and was ratified by the British on February 18th, 1815.

#16 In 1816, another central bank was created.  The Second Bank of the United States was established and was given a 20 year charter.
#17 Andrew Jackson, who became president in 1828, was determined to end the power of the central bankers over the United States.
#18 In fact, in 1832, Andrew Jackson’s re-election slogan was “JACKSON and NO BANK!”
#19 On July 10th, 1832 President Jackson said the following about the danger of a central bank….

“It is not our own citizens only who are to receive the bounty of our government. More than eight millions of the stock of this bank are held by foreigners… is there no danger to our liberty and independence in a bank that in its nature has so little to bind it to our country? … Controlling our currency, receiving our public moneys, and holding thousands of our citizens in dependence… would be more formidable and dangerous than a military power of the enemy.”

#20 In 1835, President Jackson completely paid off the U.S. national debt.  He is the only U.S. president that has ever been able to accomplish this.
#21 President Jackson vetoed the attempt to renew the charter of the Second Bank of the United States in 1836.
#22 Richard Lawrence attempted to shoot Andrew Jackson, but he survived.  It is alleged that Lawrence said that “wealthy people in Europe” had put him up to it.

#23 The Civil War was another opportunity for the central bankers of Europe to get their hooks into America.  In fact, it is claimed that Abraham Lincoln actually contacted Rothschild banking interests in Europe in an attempt to finance the war effort.  Reportedly, the Rothschilds were demanding very high interest rates and Lincoln balked at paying them.
#24 Instead, Lincoln pushed through the Legal Tender Act of 1862. Under that act, the U.S. government issued $449,338,902 of debt-free money.
#25 This debt-free money was known as “Greenbacks” because of the green ink that was used.
#26 The central bankers of Europe were not pleased.  The following quote appeared in the London Times in 1865….

“If this mischievous financial policy, which has its origin in North America, shall become endurated down to a fixture, then that Government will furnish its own money without cost. It will pay off debts and be without debt. It will have all the money necessary to carry on its commerce. It will become prosperous without precedent in the history of the world. The brains, and wealth of all countries will go to North America. That country must be destroyed or it will destroy every monarchy on the globe.”

#27 Abraham Lincoln was shot dead by John Wilkes Booth on April 14th, 1865.
#28 After the Civil War, all money in the United States was created by bankers buying U.S. government bonds in exchange for bank notes.
#29 James A. Garfield became president in 1881, and he was a staunch opponent of the banking powers.  In 1881 he said the following….

“Whoever controls the volume of money in our country is absolute master of all industry and commerce…and when you realize that the entire system is very easily controlled, one way or another, by a few powerful men at the top, you will not have to be told how periods of inflation and depression originate.”

#30 President Garfield was shot about two weeks later by Charles J. Guiteau on July 2nd, 1881.  He died from medical complications on September 19th, 1881.
#31 In 1906, the U.S. stock market was setting all kinds of records.  However, in March 1907 the U.S. stock market absolutely crashed.  It is alleged that elite New York bankers were responsible.
#32 In addition, in 1907 J.P. Morgan circulated rumors that a major New York bank had gone bankrupt.  This caused a massive run on the banks.  In turn, the banks started recalling all of their loans.  The panic of 1907 resulted in a congressional investigation that ended up concluding that a central bank was “necessary” so that these kinds of panics would never happen again.

#33 It took a few years, but the international bankers finally got their central bank in 1913.
#34 Congress voted on the Federal Reserve Act on December 22nd, 1913 between the hours of 1:30 AM and 4:30 AM.
#35 A significant portion of Congress was either sleeping at the time or was already at home with their families celebrating the holidays.
#36 The president that signed the law that created the Federal Reserve, Woodrow Wilson, later sounded like he very much regretted the decision when he wrote the following….

“A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit. Our system of credit is privately concentrated. The growth of the nation, therefore, and all our activities are in the hands of a few men … [W]e have come to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated, governments in the civilized world–no longer a government by free opinion, no longer a government by conviction and the vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and the duress of small groups of dominant men.”

#37 Between 1921 and 1929 the Federal Reserve increased the U.S. money supply by 62 percent.  This was the time known as “The Roaring 20s”.
#38 In addition, highly leveraged “margin loans” became very common during this time period.
#39 In October 1929, the New York bankers started calling in these margin loans on a massive scale.  This created the initial crash that launched the Great Depression.
#40 Rather than expand the money supply in response to this crisis, the Federal Reserve really tightened it up.

#41 In fact, it was reported the the U.S. money supply contracted by eight billion dollars between 1929 and 1933.  That was an extraordinary amount of money in those days.  Over one-third of all U.S. banks went bankrupt.  The New York bankers were able to buy up other banks and all kinds of other assets for pennies on the dollar.
But are American students being taught any of this today?
Of course not.
In fact, it is a rare student that can even adequately explain what a central bank is.
We have lost so much of what is important about our history.

And you know what they say – those who forget history are doomed to repeat it.
It is absolutely critical that we educate as many Americans as possible about what is really going on in our financial system and about why we need to make some truly fundamental changes.

Are Bacteria Far More Intelligent Than We Realize?

From http://refreshingnews9.blogspot.com

Bacteria can distinguish “self” from “other,” and between their relatives and strangers. They can communicate, prey in packs, and have social intelligence.

 

Strictly by the numbers, the vast majority — estimated by many scientists at 90 percent — of the cells in what you think of as your body are actually bacteria, not human cells. In fact, most of the life on the planet is probably composed of bacteria.

These facts by themselves may trigger existential shock: People are partly made of pond scum. But beyond that psychic trauma, a new and astonishing vista unfolds. In a series of recent findings, researchers describe bacteria that communicate in sophisticated ways, take concerted action, influence human physiology, alter human thinking and work together to bioengineer the environment. These findings may foreshadow new medical procedures that encourage bacterial participation in human health. They clearly set out a new understanding of the way in which life has developed on Earth to date, and of the power microbes have to regulate both the global environment and the internal environment of the human beings they inhabit and influence so profoundly.

Bacteria use chemicals to talk to each other and to nonbacterial cells as well. These exchanges work much as human language does, says Herbert Levine of the University of California, San Diego’s Center for Theoretical Biological Physics. With colleagues from Tel Aviv University, Levine proposed in the August 2004 Trends in Microbiology that bacteria “maintain linguistic communication,” enabling them to engage in intentional behavior both singly and in groups. In other words, they have “social intelligence.”

 

While You Lose Your Homes, The US Government Spends Your Taxes to Arm Israel

‘U.S. weaponry, ammunition and war supplies stored in Israel will reach a record $1.2 billion by 2012 under legislation aimed at increasing operational readiness of U.S. forces and their allies in high-threat areas.

Under recently passed amendments to the Foreign Assistance Act governing U.S. War Reserves Stockpiles for Allies (WRSA), the value of U.S. weapons to be prepositioned in Israel will reach $1 billion in 2011, with another $200 million added in 2012, U.S. and Israeli sources say.
Once implemented, the amount of U.S.-owned and -controlled materiel available for Israel’s emergency use will have jumped threefold from pre-2007 levels of some $400 million.’

Over the past two years, logisticians and war planners from U.S. European Command and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) elevated war stocks to congressionally authorized thresholds of $800 million. Representatives of the two militaries are now working to build up as rapidly as possible inventories that meet the newly authorized thresholds, sources said.

Established as a means of U.S. forward basing as well as a vehicle through which allies gain immediate emergency access to U.S. stocks, WRSA content, maintenance and usage procedures are routinely updated by government-to-government agreement, at threshold levels authorized by Congress.

Under the new legislation, which has yet to be codified in an updated bilateral agreement, Israel not only gains access to more U.S. stockpiles, but will enjoy greater latitude in the categories and specific types of weaponry it can request for in-country storage, sources from both countries said.
The elevated WRSA plan is one of several U.S.-supported initiatives aimed at preserving Israel’s so-called qualitative military edge and improving Israel’s readiness against growing threats from Iran and Iranian-supported militants in Lebanon, Gaza and elsewhere in the region.

In the coming weeks, Israel will receive a special one-time payment of some $502 million to expedite production of the Iron Dome short-range anti-rocket defense system. Later this month, the first two batteries of the Rafael-developed intercepting system are expected to be declared operational by the Israel Air Force for rapid deployment against rockets and missiles launched either from Gaza in the south or along Israel’s northern border with Lebanon.

Meanwhile, the Israeli military is entering the fourth and final year of a multiyear plan marked by record readiness, replenished warehouses and major milestones toward a modernized force capable of truly integrated offensive as well as defensive operations.

“This was the first time we’ve been granted the multiyear budget with which to implement a true multiyear plan … [and] the benefits of this approach are already evident in heightened readiness, improved training of regular and reserve forces, and the new technologies that help maximize our capabilities across the operational spectrum,” said Brig. Gen. Avi Benayahu, Israeli Defense Forces spokesman.

Including nearly $3 billion in annual U.S. military aid, Israeli defense spending for the year slightly exceeded 49 billion shekels ($13.7 billion), with some 24 percent earmarked for research, development and procurement.

In the next four years, Washington has committed to steady levels of $3 billion in annual military aid, along with another several hundred million annually in U.S.-funded missile defense programs and the occasional program-specific subsidy, such as the $502 million granted for expedited Iron Dome procurement.

Last month, Israel signed a $2.75 billion contract for its first squadron of F-35I Joint Strike Fighters, and later this year, Israel is expected to conclude a direct commercial deal for U.S.-based production of the Army’s Namer heavy armored personnel carrier (APC).

After a high-stakes competition between BAE Systems, Textron Marine and Land Systems and General Dynamics Land Systems (GDLS), Israel’s MoD last month selected the Sterling Heights, Mich.-based GDLS to negotiate a contract for the heavy APCs. Once finalized, those APCs will be funded through Israel’s annual U.S. Foreign Military Financing grant aid, with the aim of churning out many hundreds of Namers in the shortest possible time to meet urgent requirements for force protective land maneuvering warfare.

New evidence may write Lindbergh out of history as first to fly Atlantic

Research shows two French pilots made trip, but died on landing

From http://www.independent.co.uk By John Lichfield in Paris

The greatest single mystery of the early days of aviation has been solved, according to French researchers.  The American pilot Charles Lindbergh was not the first person to fly the full width of the Atlantic in 1927, the researchers say. He was merely the first person to land his aircraft successfully, and the first to live to tell the tale. Documentary evidence dredged from US official archives shows that two French pilots reached the Canadian coast from Paris 10 days before Lindbergh flew the Spirit of Saint Louis from New York to Le Bourget on 20-21 May, 1927. The evidence suggests that Charles Nungesser and François Coli landed their sea-plane, L’Oiseau Blanc, or The White Bird, just off the coast of the French islands of Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, near Newfoundland on 11 May. Their plane probably broke up on – or soon after – touching down and both men were killed. The fate of Nungesser, 35, and Coli, 45, heroes of the French air force in the First World War, has been called the “Everest of aviation mysteries”. Their disappearance has been the subject of speculation and conspiracy theories – including one which suggests they were shot down by American anti-Prohibition drink bootleggers – for almost a century. Bernard Decré, 70, the creator of the “round France” yacht race and an aviation enthusiast, believes he has solved the mystery at last. One of the last pieces in the jigsaw was an internal US Coast Guard telegram found by his team of researchers in the national archives in Washington DC last month. It tells of the remains of a white aircraft seen floating in the ocean 200 miles off New York on 18 August 1927, which “may be the wreck of the Coli-Nungesser airplane”. This evidence, and other documents unearthed in recent months in Newfoundland and St Pierre et Miquelon, leads Mr Decré to believe he has finally pieced together the story of Nungesser and Coli’s 5,200-kilometre flight. Although they failed to meet the “challenge” of flying between New York and Paris, they were, he believes, the first to complete a full, or “long”, crossing of the Atlantic and the first to cross the Atlantic by plane from east to west. “My intention is not to disparage the magnificent achievement of Lindbergh,” Mr Decré told The Independent yesterday. “Enormous credit is also due to the British pilots (John) Alcock and (Arthur) Brown, who were the first to complete a ‘short’ crossing of the Atlantic from Newfoundland to Ireland in 1919. “But I believe that, just as any aircraft needs to be checked minutely before each flight, we must be as precise as we can about the early history of aviation. I believe that Nungesser and Coli, although they did not live to tell their story, should now be restored to an important place in that history.” Mr Decré said he believed both the American and French governments agreed at the time to cover up – or at least not pursue – substantial contemporary evidence that the Oiseau Blanc had reached the Newfoundland coast on 11 May. There had been considerable Franco-American political and popular tensions in the 1920s, fuelled by the rivalry to be the first to snatch the $25,000 prize offered by the New York hotelier Raymond Orteig for the first flight between New York and Paris. Lindbergh’s triumph made him a hero in France and the US, creating the mood for a declaration of Franco-American friendship later that year. In these circumstances, Mr Decré said it suited the French authorities to accept the original “official” story that the Oiseau Blanc had crashed in the Channel soon after take off. There is documentary evidence, in Newfoundland archives, of an aircraft being seen and heard on 11 May. There are also well-documented witness reports, uncovered by Mr Decré’s team, of the sound of an aircraft just off the coast of Saint Pierre et Miquelon between Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. Pieces of wing were picked up in the sea nearby. Mr Decré dismisses the theory that the aircraft was shot down over Maine by bootleggers who feared it was a military or customs aircraft. However, he believes that Saint Pierre’s role as a beachhead for illegal drinks exports to the US encouraged local officials to cover up the Oiseau Blanc’s ill-fated landing off their coast. “The last thing that they wanted was officialdom from Paris snooping around,” he said. It was Nungesser and Coli’s aim to land their sea-plane in New York harbour. Mr Decré believes that they realised they had insufficient fuel to reach New York. They landed in the sea close to Saint Pierre but the bi-plane, largely made of wood and canvas, broke up. Ocean currents carried part of the wreckage south to the New York coast.

This is an actual full length documentry … be prepared..

http://video.google.com/googleplayer.swf?docid=-515319560256183936&hl=en&fs=true

Suffocated By Red Tape – 12 Ridiculous Regulations That Are Almost Too Bizarre To Believe

From The Economic Collapse November 12, 2010 @ 6:41 am

Even with all of the massive economic problems that the United States is facing, if the government would just get off our backs most of us would do okay.  In America today, it is rapidly getting to the point where it is nearly impossible to start or to operate a small business.  The federal government, the state governments and local governments are cramming thousands upon thousands of new ridiculous regulations down our throats each year.  It would take a full team of lawyers just to even try to stay informed about all of these new regulations.  Small business in the United States is literally being suffocated by red tape.  We like to think that we live in “the land of the free”, but the truth is that our lives and our businesses are actually tightly constrained by millions of rules and regulations.  Today there is a “license” for just about every business activity.  In fact, in some areas of the country today you need a “degree” and multiple “licenses” before you can even submit an application for permission to start certain businesses.  And if you want to actually hire some people for your business, the paperwork nightmare gets far worse.  It is a wonder that anyone in America is still willing to start a business from scratch and hire employees.  The truth is that the business environment in the United States is now so incredibly toxic that millions of Americans have simply given up and don’t even try to work within the system anymore.

Today, the U.S. government has an “alphabet agency” for just about everything.  The nanny state feels like it has to watch, track and tightly control virtually everything that we do.  The Federal Register is the main source of regulations for U.S. government agencies.  In 1936, the number of pages in the Federal Register was about 2,600.  Today, the Federal Register is over 80,000 pages long.  That is just one example of how bad things have gotten.

But it is not just the federal government that is ramming thousands of ridiculous regulations down our throats.  The truth is that in many cases state and local governments are far worse.  We have become a nation that is run and dominated by bureaucrats.  Yes, there always must be rules in a society, but we have gotten to the point where there are so many millions of rules that the game has become unplayable.

The following are 12 examples of ridiculous regulations that are almost too bizarre to believe….

#1 The state of Texas now requires every new computer repair technician to obtain a private investigator’s license.  In order to receive a private investigator’s license, an individual must either have a degree in criminal justice or must complete a three year apprenticeship with a licensed private investigator.  If you are a computer repair technician that violates this law, or if you are a regular citizen that has a computer repaired by someone not in compliance with the law, you can be fined up to $4,000 and you can be put in jail for a year.

#2 The city of Philadelphia now requires all bloggers to purchase a $300 business privilege license.  The city even went after one poor woman who had earned only $11 from her blog over the past two years.

#3 The state of Louisiana says that monks must be fully licensed as funeral directors and actually convert their monasteries into licensed funeral homes before they will be allowed to sell their handmade wooden caskets.

#4 In the state of Massachusetts, all children in daycare centers are mandated by state law to brush their teeth after lunch.  In fact, the state even provides the fluoride toothpaste for the children.

#5 If you attempt to give a tour of our nation’s capital without a license, you could be put in prison for 90 days.

#6 Federal agents recently raided an Amish farm at 5 A.M. in the morning because they were selling “unauthorized” raw milk.

#7 In Lake Elmo, Minnesota farmers can be fined $1,000 and put in jail for 90 days for selling pumpkins or Christmas trees that are grown outside city limits.

#8 A U.S. District Court judge slapped a 5oo dollar fine on Massachusetts fisherman Robert J. Eldridge for untangling a giant whale from his nets and setting it free.  So what was his crime?  Well, according to the court, Eldridge was supposed to call state authorities and wait for them do it.

#9 In the state of Texas, it doesn’t matter how much formal interior design education you have – only individuals with government licenses may refer to themselves as “interior designers” or use the term “interior design” to describe their work.

#10 Deeply hidden in the 2,409-page health reform bill passed by Congress was a new regulation that will require U.S. businesses to file millions more 1099s each year.  In fact, it is estimated that the average small business will now have to file 200 additional 1099s every single year.  Talk about a nightmare of red tape!  But don’t try to avoid this rule – it is being reported that the IRS has hired approximately 2,000 new auditors to audit as many of these 1099s as possible.

#11 The city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin makes it incredibly difficult to go out of business.  In order to close down a business, Milwaukee requires you to purchase an expensive license, you must submit a huge pile of paperwork to the city regarding the inventory you wish to sell off, and you must pay a fee based on the length of your “going out of business sale” plus a two dollar charge for every $1,000 worth of inventory that you are attempting to sell off.

#12 The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is projecting that the food service industry will have to spend an additional 14 million hours every single year just to comply with new federal regulations that mandate that all vending machine operators and chain restaurants must label all products that they sell with a calorie count in a location visible to the consumer.

Tablets reveal Babylonian math skills

Old Babylonian “hand tablet” illustrating Pythagoras’ Theorem and an approximation of the square root of two.
A New York exhibition of ancient tablets has revealed the highly sophisticated mathematical practices and education in central-southern Mesopotamia.

Before Pythagoras: The Culture of Old Babylonian Mathematics displays thirteen Babylonian tablets which show that people of the region were math experts more than 1,000 years before Greek mathematicians were even born.

Held at the New York University’s Institute for the Study of the Ancient World (ISAW), the event exhibits tablets dating from the Old Babylonian Period (ca. 1900-1700 BCE) along with supplemental documentary material.

“It has long been widely recognized that many of the critical achievements of Western Civilization, including writing and the code of law that is the basis for our present-day legal system, developed in ancient Mesopotamia,” Artdaily quoted ISAW director for exhibitions and public programs Jennifer Chi.

“By demonstrating the richness and sophistication of ancient Mesopotamian mathematics, Before Pythagoras adds an important dimension to the public knowledge of the history of historic cultures and attainments of present-day Iraq,” she added.

The tablets, collected from the Columbia Rare Book and Manuscript Library, the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, and the Yale Babylonian Collection, will be on display until December 17, 2010.

“The evidence we have for Old Babylonian mathematics is amazing not only in its abundance, but also in its range, from basic arithmetic to really challenging problems and investigations,” said exhibition organizer Alexander Jones.

The modern knowledge of Babylonian mathematics is based on the work of scribes, who were young wealthy men formally trained in reading and writing.

The scribes learned and practiced mathematics while working in fields such as accounting, building-project planning, and other professions in which mathematics is essential.

“Since the documents are the actual manuscripts of the scribes… we feel as if we were looking over their shoulders as they work,” said Jones.

“We can even see them getting confused and making mistakes.”

The exhibited tablets are in cuneiform script and cover the full spectrum of mathematical activity from arithmetical tables copied by scribes-in-training to sophisticated work on topics today classified as number theory and algebra.

Many of the solutions used by scribes to solve the mathematical problems depended on principles that were believed to have been discovered by Greeks in the sixth century BCE and later.